Aldol Condensation

Aldehydes and ketones containing alpha-H atom undergo a reversible self -addition in presence of dilute alkali to give condensation product, beta-hydroxy aldehyde and ketone Mechanism of the Aldol condensation Here the carbanion (2) obtained from

Crystal Lattice and Unit Cells

Crystal Lattice and Unit Cells We have discussed that all crystals consist of regularly repeating array of atoms, molecules or ions. It is much more convenient to represent each particle by a point, called lattice

Classification of Solids

Solids are broadly classified into two types (A) Crystalline solids   (B) Amorphous solids. A crystalline solid is a substance whose constituent particles possess regular orderly arrangement e.g. Sodium chloride, sucrose, etc. An amorphous solid is

The Solid state

The matter exists in three states- solid, liquid, gas. They differ in the interparticle spaces which are the least in the solids and maximum in the gas. The liquids and gases are quite often called

Conductors and Non Conductors

What are Conductors and Non-conductors Substances around us can be divided into two classes based on their ability of conduct electricity: Non-Conductors: Those substances which do not allow electric current to pass through them are called


Introduction Electrochemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry which deals with the relationship between chemical energy and electrical energy taking place in a redo reaction and inter conversion of one form of energy into

Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula

Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula A brief representation of the molecule of the substance in terms of symbols of various elements present in it is called chemical formula of the compound. The relative number of